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July

Causes of Group B Strep

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What is Group B Strep?

Group B strep are bacteria that can colonize in the vagina, rectal, and intestinal area of healthy adults and pregnant women. Statistically, about 25% of all healthy adults will at one time have a GBS infection.

While pregnant women do not often show symptoms of a GBS infection, there is a risk that they can transmit the infection to their newborn baby. Once transmitted, some newborns may develop complication which can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and even sepsis, so infants who are at risk need to be monitored. The best way to prevent this is through early detection in the mother and administration of antibiotics to treat it.

Group B Strep infections can also occur in nonpregnant adults who suffer from chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, or cancer. Typically those over 65 are at higher risk, but the incident rates of GBS infection in nonpregnant adults has been steadily increasing throughout the years.

Causes of Group B Strep

Healthy people can carry Group B Strep in their body at any time, it can also come and go or can stay permanently.

GBS can be found in some pregnant women and if not treated can pass to their newborns. When newborns contract Group B Strep infection in the first week of life it is called early onset. For babies who are 1 to 3 weeks of age when they develop the disease, it is termed late-onset.

How Can Group B Strep be Transmitted?

Group B Strep is transmitted by a pregnant mother to their babies during a vaginal birth. Typically mothers who test positive will be given antibiotics during delivery to reduce the risk of transmission. This will occur in about 50% of mothers who have an active infection during birth.

Out of this 50%, only about 100 to 200 of these babies born will develop a GBS infection requiring treatment.

Who’s at Higher Risk for Group B Strep?

When it comes to having Group B Strep, the incident rates are higher among African Americans than Caucasians. While there are not many statistical differences with a mother becoming a GBS carrier, there are some instances where there is a higher risk of transmission to the infant, including:

  • Early onset of labor
  • Fever during labor and delivery
  • An active urinary tract infection
  • Premature rupture of the membranes
  • Previous Group B Strep infection
  • Positive GBS culture after 35 weeks or pregnancy

Symptoms of GBS Infection

When an active Group B Strep infection is present, there can be some symptoms that can range from mild to severe. Some of the symptoms to watch out for include.

In Newborns

  • Fever
  • Seizures
  • Bluish color
  • limpness
  • Stiffness
  • Breath complications
  • Diarrhea
  • Fussiness
  • Problems with heart rate and blood pressure
  • Problems feeding

In Adults

  • Skin infections
  • Sepsis
  • Lung infection
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Meningitis
  • Joint infections

Treatment of GBS

While the most common form of treatment is to treat the mother with antibiotics during labor to prevent the transmission, once contracted a GBS infection is typically treated with IV antibiotics and sometimes a surgical procedure if a bone or joint infection is present.

While GBS infections can result in severe complications, they are often preventable in newborns with routine maternal screening which makes prenatal care essential to protecting your newborn against such infections.

 

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Importance of National Cleft & Craniofacial Awareness & Prevention Month

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Image is from nccapm.org

This entire month is national cleft and craniofacial awareness and prevention month. July is a time to draw awareness, funding and support for the hundreds of infants and teens afflicted with congenital issues like cleft lip and cleft palates.

Many adults likewise suffer from cleft and craniofacial disorders through sometimes life-threatening conditions of the craniofacial region as well as trauma. A car accident, for example, could leave an individual suffering from a cleft palate, otherwise known as an opening in the mouth and lip.

These kinds of issues can erode the self-esteem of children and adolescents and cause significant developmental issues. Cleft and lip palates have been associated with breathing issues as well as some problems with language development and proper speech.

Appreciating the Differences and Encouraging Support

Some craniofacial defects are caused by abnormalities during gestational development. These kinds of defects break down into two broad categories – orofacial clefts and craniosynostosis.

The former – orofacial clefts – is characterized by the mouth and lip not forming as they should whereas the latter occurs when a young baby’s bones meld together too early for proper development to take hold.

In terms of craniofacial issues beyond cleft lip and cleft palates, national cleft and craniofacial awareness and prevention month is about drawing attention and funding towards issues like anotia (where the external part of the ear is absent) and microtia (characterized by a deformation in the external portion of someone’s ear).

  • Early Treatment is Highly Beneficial

Although treatments can vary somewhat depending on the age and health of the child, as well as the medical severity of the issue and lifestyle impairments (e.g., breathing issues), appreciating the pain and struggle that these disorders can cause is important.

Just cleft lip and cleft palate issues account for over 4,000 new cases of craniofacial issues in infants every single year. Cleft palates account for over 2,700 new cases annually, and that number is only growing.

Many of these issues are completely treatable and incredible charities like Smile Train and put in place so that everyday people can make a small contribution that can literally change lives.

If possible, these issues should really be treated early since doing so can mitigate some of the detrimental effects of living with congenital or acquired craniofacial issues. These can include physical, developmental, and learning issues that can be severely reduced or eliminated entirely with the help of craniofacial surgeons and improvements in technology.

Many children afflicted with craniofacial issues like cleft lip and cleft palate are, tragically, teased for having the condition. Researchers from the University of Michigan found that children suffering for these conditions can face health and social problems.

On the health front, issues can range from an increased rate of dental issues and hearing problems (including ear infections) whereas social problems among children with craniofacial and cleft issues can range from issues pronouncing certain consonants in their everyday speech to school problems.

Researchers have long noted that children with cleft lip and cleft palate face an erosion of self-esteem in more severe cases and long gaps missed during the school year because of one or more surgeries to address the condition.

How Everyone Can Help: Treatment and Research Funding

There are a number of steps that you can take online, in your community, and through donations to chip away at the negative hold that these craniofacial and cleft disorders can have over too many children.

Asking your local city council or local house representative to include funding for research or simply making a small donation to ACPA can make a huge difference in a child’s life.

 

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Significance of International Group B Strep Awareness Month

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July the Awareness Month for Strep B

July is the awareness month that helps educate expecting moms and individuals about Strep B. Strep B stands for Streptococcus a dangerous bacterium that can cause illness in newborns and individuals with weak and even strong immune systems.

Most of the time there are no symptoms presents when a person is infected with the bacterial infection, which is why it is essential for expecting moms to be screened for it before they give birth. If the infection is not caught before the newborn arrives and it is present, the infection can pass right onto the newborn during delivery. If a newborn ends up catching the illness there is potential for it to become serious and even fatal.

Why is Strep B so dangerous?

Strep B is so dangerous because it can turn into meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia without proper diagnoses and treatment. People with strong immune systems can typically survive and fight off these types of infections, but newborn babies during the first weeks of life tend to struggle. This is due to their weakened immune systems, and why so many babies who contract the Strep B illness pass away. Other health problems that can arise from suffering from a Strep B infection are hearing loss, and mental and physical disabilities.

How is Strep B tested?

Expecting moms and individuals are tested for Strep B through a genital swab test. Sometimes testing can be done with a simple urine or blood test. Pregnant women get this test done by their OBGYN or midwife at 37 weeks of pregnancy. Those who suspect they may have it can ask their family doctor to test for the infection.

With that said, the only true way an individual can know for themselves that they could be potentially infected with the bacterium is by experiencing symptoms. Without symptoms, individuals don’t usually suspect any can of infection until it becomes so serious staying in the hospital is essential for intense treatment to help rid the infection from the body.

What are some of the symptoms of the infection?

  • Infection setting into an area of skin
  • Painful urination with a UTI
  • Constant fever with chills
  • Lethargy
  • Skin rashes or infections
  • Vaginal discharge and discomforts
  • Inflammation in the lungs or joints of the body
  • Irritability or moodiness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Headaches and dizziness if the infection spreads to the brain

Where does the Strep B bacterium live within the body?

Strep B bacterium is found in the mouth, throat, genital area, rectum and sometimes even bloodstream of the body. It is passed through bodily fluid contact, or simply encountering the bacteria hanging out on an individual’s skin. If an individual does become infected with Strep B, thankfully there are treatments that work effectively with curing the illness.

What are the antibiotics for most useful for treating the infection?

The antibiotics most commonly used for treating the Strep B infection are ampicillin, penicillin, cefazolin and clindamycin. These medications are provided orally, but with serious infection they are given through IV in the hospital. You can only get these medications through prescriptions from doctors.

End Thoughts for the Significance of Strep B Awareness Month?

The best way to save lives from Strep B is by becoming educated and educating others about the infection. July’s awareness month is the perfect opportunity to get the word out there to help promote proper screening for it in individuals of all ages. After all, everyone deserves to know about potentially life threatening infections that are preventable through proper screening and testing and treatable with simple antibiotics.

 

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