Toll Free: 1-877-335-2455
Fax: 877-889-9157

MD GeneticPro

How Diabetes Can Affect Your Eyes


Diabetes is a condition that occurs when your blood sugar is too high. This occurs because the disease makes it difficult for your body to make enough insulin or use it properly. There are two types of diabetes. Type I diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes and it occurs in children and young adults. This type occurs when the body doesn’t make insulin. The second type is Type II diabetes. This type can occur at any age and it is caused if your body doesn’t make insulin or if it doesn’t use it well.

If not treated properly, diabetes can cause serious health problems including:

  • Kidney disease
  • Food problems
  • Nerve damage
  • Dental problems
  • Stroke
  • Heart disease
  • Eye problems

What Is Diabetic Eye Disease?

Diabetic eye disease is more than one disease that can affect people who suffer from diabetes. People who don’t keep their diabetes under control are at greater risk of eye complications. Also, each of the conditions can cause serious vision loss and even blindness. If you suffer from diabetes, it is important that you understand each of the diseases and what they can do to your eyes.

  • Diabetic Retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in people who have diabetes. The condition affects the blood vessels in the retina, which lines the back of the eye. If your blood sugar is often high, it can cause damage to the retina’s tiny blood vessels. This can result in the blood vessels bleeding or leaking fluid which can cause distortions in the vision. When the condition progresses, it can result in scarring and cell loss in the retina, causing complete blindness. In many cases, vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy is irreversible. Early detection and treatment can reduce your risk of going blind by 95 percent.
  • Diabetic Macular Edema (DME): DME often occurs in people who have diabetic retinopathy. While it often occurs when the disease progresses, it can occur at any time. It is a build-up of fluid in the macula. This part of the eye is used for seeing straight ahead to read, drive, and recognize faces. Half of the people who develop diabetic retinopathy develop DME. If left untreated, it can cause vision loss.
  • Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s lens. When a person has cataracts, their natural lens would be removed and replaced with an artificial one. Anyone can develop cataracts, however, people with diabetes are two to five times more likely to develop cataracts than those who aren’t diabetic.
  • Glaucoma: Glaucoma damages the eye’s optic nerve, which connects the eye to the brain. Glaucoma is often the result of high pressure in the eye, and it is very common in people with diabetes. Studies have shown that adults who suffer from diabetes are twice as likely to develop glaucoma than those who don’t have the disease.

Preventing Diabetic Eye Disease

The only way to prevent diabetic eye disease is to be vigilant when it comes to your blood sugar levels. You should also see your eye doctor every six months. The sooner a problem is detected, the sooner it can be treated, saving your eyesight. Many of the diabetic eye diseases won’t show any symptoms at first, therefore, it is very important that you see your eye doctor regularly.

Diabetes can wreak havoc on many of the body’s systems including your vision. The only way to prevent permanent vision loss and blindness is to check your blood sugar levels regularly and take the necessary steps to keep it at a healthy level.



Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Understanding Immunotherapy


Image is from Cancer Research Catalyst – American Association for Cancer Research

Immunotherapy also known as biologic therapy is a type of treatment that induces or enhances the body’s immune system instead of using medicines. This process is usually done to treat cancer by stimulating the immune system to become more active in attacking cancer cells or by sustaining the body with man-made immune system proteins.

How Does the Immune System Work?

The immune system is the sum of all components that work together to maintain the normal functions of body organs. These components include but not limited to white blood cells, nutrients, and organ functions.

When the surface of skin is wounded, white blood cells work to heal the wound by eliminating foreign substances. When the wound is larger, it requires a lot of white blood cells to cover the wounded area. This will result in the appearance of lymph nodes near the area. This is where white blood cells build up.

In the process of eliminating foreign substances such as bacteria, germs, and cancer cells, body nutrients such as vitamin C may work to repair the damaged tissues and collagen.

Meanwhile, body organs work together to prevent disease-causing agents to stay inside the body. Kidney works to filter toxins, which are excreted through the urine. Digestive system separate important substances needed by the body from waste. The heart continues to pump blood to carry white blood cells and red blood cells needed to heal wounds.

These are some examples of how the immune system work. The immune system is not a single substance nor a single organ. It is an integration of several body systems that work together to protect the body from certain diseases.

The Immune System as Treatment for Cancer

There still no single medicine that can cure cancer. So far, an effective way to suppress the spread of cancer cells is through the immune system. The immune system serves as the police inside the body. It detects unwanted substances that may infect any area of the body.

However, cancer cells are not detected by the immune system as they appear to be like normal cells by of sending signals to the PD-1 CTLA-4 receptors. These signals confuse the immune system. This is why even a healthy body with strong immune system cannot prevent cancer.

Nonetheless, there is a way to make cancer cells detected by the immune system. The use of immunotherapy drugs such as inhibitors can disrupt the signals that are sent by cancer cells. This will let the cancer cells exposed to the immune system. Cytokines and cancer vaccines are examples of these inhibitors.

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are man-made immune system proteins. These proteins attach to cancer cells thereby flagging the cancer cells to be recognized by the immune system. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies work to block the abnormal proteins in cancer cells, so they can also be used to prevent cancer cells from spreading.

These are examples of man-made antibodies:

  • Pembrolizumab (Keytruda)
  • Nivolumab (Opdivo)
  • Ipilimumab (Yervoy)

Non-Specific Immunotherapies

Non-specific immunotherapies are used to boost the immune system to directly stop and kill cancer cells. Examples of these are interferons and interleukin’s.


The use of the immune system is still the most recommended method in the treatment of cancer. It only needs the help of inhibitors to let it work properly on the target. The problem with the immune system is that it is not intelligent enough to keep cancer cells from being hidden. This is why there is still a need for human intervention with the help of man-made antibodies.

Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes


Image is from Diabetes Research

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by, among other symptoms, a high concentration of sugar in the blood. With the myriad of disorders, the beta cells located in the pancreas find it hard to produce enough insulin to assist in the regulation of blood sugar levels. Diabetes occurs in two types, type 1 and type 2. Type one is caused by an autoimmune reaction that usually occurs in the pancreas while insulin resistance characterizes type 2. Type 2 can develop and result in the loss of beta cells. Both types of diabetes are chronic and incurable. However, they are treatable with insulin injections and dietary adjustments.

Diabetes is often seen in those who are over 30 years of age. The number of people who are diagnosed with these conditions keeps rising each day. This is attributed to the unhealthy lifestyles and dietary decisions that they take up. It is imperative to have some information on these conditions as it will be easy then to help the patients lead a better life. To get to know about these two closely related diseases, you must learn the difference between the two. Usually, people tend to confuse the two types of diabetes. However, they have different causes, and as such, different treatments. Taking medication for one type if you have the other, can be detrimental to your health and even lead to death in some instances.

Test for insulin levels

To begin with, you must discern the difference between the two types of diabetes. First, the level of the c-peptide of type 1 diabetes is very low while I type 2, the same is either normal or elevated. The level of c-peptides is a determinant of insulin levels in the blood. It is a more reliable way than just measuring the level of insulin itself.

Let’s look at the functional difference between diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2

Type 1 diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, insulin is no longer produced by the pancreas since the beta cells have been destroyed through the process of autoimmune response. This is, essentially, to say the person’s body has rebelled against them and, particularly their pancreas, leading to the destruction of something that is desperately needed by the body. Without insulin, it ‘s hard for your cells to absorb the sugar into the bloodstream. This basically means the cells will be starved. If your body lacks insulin, your cells will no longer function properly, or worse, stop working at all. The people with diabetes in this category need to get regular insulin injections.

Type 2 diabetes

People with Type 2 diabetes have almost similar effects as type 1s although the type 2 patient gets the effect for a different reason. Here, the individual’s body is still producing. However, the insulin may not be absorbed properly. At other times, the absorbed insulin may not be sufficient for the amount of sugar present in the blood. Unlike with type 1, the patient in this type of diabetes may not even need insulin at all. Here, the primary factor that causes it is lifestyle choices including the kind of food you take. A significant percentage of people with type 2 are overweight though are factors have a hand too. The person often takes food high in calories and lives a sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes can, in many cases, be readily managed.

Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes


Image from the

Factors Listed

As a brief checklist, run over the following items and see how many describe your lifestyle:

  • Diabetes In The Family History
  • Gestational Diabetes In Family History
  • Ethnicity
  • Bad Nutrition In Pregnancy
  • High Blood Pressure
  • IGT
  • Increasing Age
  • Poor Diet
  • Lack Of Physical Activity
  • Being Overweight

Should you or a loved one be described by more than two or three of these items, consulting a physician about being at risk for Type II Diabetes makes sense.

Family History

If your family has a long history of diabetes, it is likely there are habits in eating which have sentimental or psychological value that could have been passed down to you. Additionally, you or a loved one may have genetic disposition which trends the direction of diabetes. Knowing whether or not this affliction has been part of your family’s history is a great way to determine whether or not there is inherent risk for the condition’s development.

Gestational Problems

If there is a history of gestational diabetes in your family, this is a very big indicator that the condition definitely exists in your family, and that you may be at increased risk of developing it.


Believe it or not, your ethnic background could be a contributing factor for the same reason a history of diabetes in your family could be. Ethnicities are basically just expanded families, when the tree is traced back far enough; so this is really just an extension of that point.

Bad Nutrition During Pregnancy

There are a number of ways you can have poor nutrition throughout the course of a pregnancy. Ways to accidentally do this to yourself include eating too much junk food, not getting enough physical activity at key times during the pregnancy, or not getting fed well enough due to conditions like poverty. Again, and as a general rule, the more natural something is, the less likely you’ll develop a condition like diabetes by eating it in healthy amounts.

Blood Pressure

High blood pressure can indicate a lot of things. One of them happens to be Type II Diabetes.


IGT isn’t a supermarket, it’s an abbreviation for Impaired Glucose Tolerance. This is a condition wherein a person develops higher-than-normal levels of glucose in the blood. It’s not quite at the threshold of diabetes, and is a clear warning sign that Type II Diabetes is near.


Your pancreas is a bodily component subject to entropy like you. The older you get, the greater your likelihood of developing diabetes.


If all you eat is meat and sugar, you’re on the diabetic train. Get minerals and vitamins in you. Fruits, vegetables, wheat that is not made from enriched flower, bananas (a good source of potassium)–in general, anything natural and/or unprocessed.

Physical Inactivity

You do not have to be fat and unhealthy in your diet to develop diabetes, excessive physical inactivity may also contribute to the condition.

Being Overweight

Not all diabetic people are morbidly obese. Some are actually quite muscular. Everybody has a different body, and factors inducing diabetic reaction are definitely variable. But one big indicator is being overweight. This can be combated with healthy diet and exercise, however.

Warning Signs

There are a lot of indicators which may indicate you or someone you love is at risk for Type II Diabetes. Diabetes can be prevented with proper diet and exercise, even if it is in a family’s history. At least, Type II Diabetes can. Type I diabetes is understood to be too severe. If you pay attention to available warning signs, you could save yourself years of discomfort and at-risk living.

Families in Canada order more medicines per human than any other area. The variety of medications marketed by companies is no doubt a contributing matter to recipe preparation abuse epidemic. Various remedies are used to treat Bladder combustion. Certainly it isn’t all. Kamagra is a preparation set to treat many upsets. What do you think about When you order medications like Kamagra you have to keep in mind about levitra 20 mg. More information about Kamagra available at levitra 20mg. Generally, both men and women are afflicted by sexual dysfunctions. At times another disease can cause to impotency. Preparatory to purchasing Kamagra or other generic, speak to your pharmacist if you have any allergies. Talk to your health care vocational any changes in libido you have skilled. Online pharmacy is a best way to find a physician in your area who treats this kind of disfunction.

Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Complications for Type 2 diabetes


The onset of Type II Diabetes occurs after adulthood, and usually between ages of 40 and 50. The causative factors and the treatment, however, is very much the same as for juvenile diabetes: Daily blood sugar level tests and injections of insulin and/or oral medication to provide the body with necessary insulin the pancreas cannot produce.

Carrying high glucose levels damage blood vessels, nerves, and vital organs. Even a mildly elevated glucose level without displaying any symptoms can have long-term and very damaging effects. Complications of Type II Diabetes are life threatening.

  • Heart Disease and/or Stroke

If you have diabetes I or II, you’re five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke shortening your life and quality of it. Uncontrolled blood glucose levels over a long period of time increase the chance of atherosclerosis, causing your blood vessels to clog and narrow with fatty deposits. This commonly will result in poor blood supply to your heart, causing pain in your chest. This condition also increases the blockages of vessels in your heart or brain, causing heart attack or cerebral stroke.

  • Nerve damage

High glucose levels damage blood vessels in nerves, causing tingling and burning with pain spreading from your fingers or toes through your limbs. It also causes numbness, leading to ulcers of the feet, and these ulcers contribute to eventual amputation loss of that limb. Regular examination of a foot specialist is necessary for Diabetes I and II patients. Damage to the peripheral nervous system, including all of the nervous system outside the central nervous system, is peripheral neuropathy.

  • Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is the name for the disease striking the light-sensitive layer of the retina, the tissue layer in the back of the eye. Blood vessels in the retina that have become either blocked or actually leaky can experience haphazard growth, preventing light to completely pass to your eye retina. This damages vision and can blind. Annual eye checks are necessary. If significant damage has occurred the patient can be referred to a specialist in treatment of eye conditions. Therefore, the more control you have over your blood glucose levels, the lower your risk of blinding eye problems. Diabetic retinopathy can be managed by specialists using laser treatment if early enough in the disease. However, this does not improve the sight; it only preserves the sight you have left after damage.

  • Kidney disease

If the smaller blood vessels in your kidney are blocked and/or leaky, your kidneys react by not working efficiently. This condition is linked to high blood pressure and treatment is an important management process. In severe kidney disease, kidney failure occurs, requiring a kidney transplant, dialysis treatment or resulting in death.

  • Sexual Dysfunction

For Men:

Males with diabetes, particularly smokers, suffer nerve and blood vessel damage leading to impotence, usually treated with medication.

For Women:

Women with diabetes may experience the following:

  • loss of libido and sex drive;
  • vaginal dryness;
  • inability to orgasm;
  • pain during sex.

Use of vaginal lubricant or gel can ease those dysfunctions.

  • Miscarriage and stillbirth

Pregnant women with diabetes have a high risk of miscarriage or a stillbirth.

If your blood glucose level is uncontrolled during early pregnancy, there’s also a higher risk of the baby being born with a birth defect. Pregnant women with diabetes must have their checkups in hospital or diabetic clinic to provide protection for their baby and the mother-to-be. This gives your pregnancy care team a close eye on your blood glucose levels and control of your insulin dosage, including monitoring development of your baby.



Families in Canada order more medicines per person than any other area. The variety of medications marketed by companies is no doubt a contributing question to formula preparation abuse epidemic. Various remedies are used to treat Bladder priming. Certainly it isn’t all. Kamagra is a medicament set to treat many upsets. What do you think about When you order medications like Kamagra you have to mind about levitra 20 mg. More information about Kamagra available at levitra 20mg. Generally, both men and women are afflicted by sexual dysfunctions. At times another disease can cause to impotency. Preparatory to purchasing Kamagra or other generic, speak to your pharmacist if you have any allergies. Talk to your health care professional any changes in libido you have experienced. Online apothecary is a best way to find a doc in your area who treats this kind of dysfunction.

Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

What is the prognosis and life expectancy of hepatitis C patient?


Hepatitis C infographic from

Hepatitis C is a very serious condition that not only affects the liver, but it is a powerful disease that can have other significant complications and problems within the body. Many people could be infected and living with it and not even know at first because the symptoms are initially mild. However, as Hepatitis C continues to grow and progress within the body it can lead to onset liver disease and cirrhosis. The important thing for anyone is to be able to understand not only what the disease is, but also how they can take precautions to protect against it.

Infection and Transmission

While there are always potential issues that could happen with respect to medical accidents, for the most part there are only two major reasons why anyone would come into contact with Hepatitis C. In the developed world there are issues with drug and needle sharing that could cause problems with respect to transfer of the disease itself. There are issues in the undeveloped world that could be a problem because of the lack of hospital controls and cleanliness or sanitary issues. In short, it is absolutely a blood problem and that is where you need to be aware. You cannot get Hepatitis C through casual contact, but through personal contact or contact of personal items you could see an infection.


The long term effects could be problems of the liver including liver failure and / or cirrhosis. There could also be drug treatments, but when you consider the fact that Hepatitis is not fully curable at this point there is little hope as of now that it will be. Consider the fact that it is also a virus, and there is no actual cureas of now that needs to be even considered because it is not feasible at this time. There are some trials and FDA approvals, but those are uncertain and unproven. Throw in the side effects which are common such as flu-like symptoms, hair loss, low blood count, fatigue, trouble thinking, nervousness, and even depression, and you can see why this is such a dangerous disease to live and cope with.


While Hepatitis C is a very powerful disease, there are methods to avoid it. When you consider the main causes of infection and transmission can be protected against, the most important thing is simply being cautious. Not only are there a tremendous amount of screening and detection methods able to be performed so you know who is infected, but you will also want to go to extreme measures to ensure you are not putting yourself in harms way when it comes to risky behavior with infected people. When you also consider the potential of the disease being undetected early on, the consequences of risky behavior in general could still be problematic because you may not know who is infected and who isn’t.

Life Expectancy

Hepatitis C is not just a powerful disease, it is one that can take as many as fifteen years off of the back end of your life. This is assuming you don’t already have any other problems or conditions. When you think about the potential problems that can come about as additional complications, or the hardships you can face if you actually have other diseases or medical issues, and it can be a very powerful problem to try and deal with.

At the end of day, you need to continue to try and protect yourself from Hepatitis C. Even though you might be able to deal or cope with the disease, you do not want to risk it.

Families in Canada order more medicines per person than any other area. The variety of medications marketed by companies is no doubt a contributing question to formula cure abuse epidemic. Various remedies are used to treat Bladder inflammation. Certainly it isn’t all. Kamagra is a cure set to treat many upsets. What do you think about When you order medications like Kamagra you have to have in mind about levitra 20 mg. More data about Kamagra available at levitra 20mg. Generally, both men and women are afflicted by sexual dysfunctions. At times another disease can cause to impotence. Preparatory to purchasing Kamagra or other generic, speak to your pharmacist if you have any allergies. Talk to your health care professional any changes in libido you have skilled. Online pharmacy is a best way to find a doctor in your area who treats this kind of malfunction.

Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,