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Transmission

Causes of Group B Strep

GBS2

 

What is Group B Strep?

Group B strep are bacteria that can colonize in the vagina, rectal, and intestinal area of healthy adults and pregnant women. Statistically, about 25% of all healthy adults will at one time have a GBS infection.

While pregnant women do not often show symptoms of a GBS infection, there is a risk that they can transmit the infection to their newborn baby. Once transmitted, some newborns may develop complication which can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and even sepsis, so infants who are at risk need to be monitored. The best way to prevent this is through early detection in the mother and administration of antibiotics to treat it.

Group B Strep infections can also occur in nonpregnant adults who suffer from chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, or cancer. Typically those over 65 are at higher risk, but the incident rates of GBS infection in nonpregnant adults has been steadily increasing throughout the years.

Causes of Group B Strep

Healthy people can carry Group B Strep in their body at any time, it can also come and go or can stay permanently.

GBS can be found in some pregnant women and if not treated can pass to their newborns. When newborns contract Group B Strep infection in the first week of life it is called early onset. For babies who are 1 to 3 weeks of age when they develop the disease, it is termed late-onset.

How Can Group B Strep be Transmitted?

Group B Strep is transmitted by a pregnant mother to their babies during a vaginal birth. Typically mothers who test positive will be given antibiotics during delivery to reduce the risk of transmission. This will occur in about 50% of mothers who have an active infection during birth.

Out of this 50%, only about 100 to 200 of these babies born will develop a GBS infection requiring treatment.

Who’s at Higher Risk for Group B Strep?

When it comes to having Group B Strep, the incident rates are higher among African Americans than Caucasians. While there are not many statistical differences with a mother becoming a GBS carrier, there are some instances where there is a higher risk of transmission to the infant, including:

  • Early onset of labor
  • Fever during labor and delivery
  • An active urinary tract infection
  • Premature rupture of the membranes
  • Previous Group B Strep infection
  • Positive GBS culture after 35 weeks or pregnancy

Symptoms of GBS Infection

When an active Group B Strep infection is present, there can be some symptoms that can range from mild to severe. Some of the symptoms to watch out for include.

In Newborns

  • Fever
  • Seizures
  • Bluish color
  • limpness
  • Stiffness
  • Breath complications
  • Diarrhea
  • Fussiness
  • Problems with heart rate and blood pressure
  • Problems feeding

In Adults

  • Skin infections
  • Sepsis
  • Lung infection
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Meningitis
  • Joint infections

Treatment of GBS

While the most common form of treatment is to treat the mother with antibiotics during labor to prevent the transmission, once contracted a GBS infection is typically treated with IV antibiotics and sometimes a surgical procedure if a bone or joint infection is present.

While GBS infections can result in severe complications, they are often preventable in newborns with routine maternal screening which makes prenatal care essential to protecting your newborn against such infections.

 

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Understanding Polio

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Image is from GOOD Magazine

Poliomyelitis, popularly known as polio is a crippling, infectious and potentially harmful viral infection transmitted by the poliovirus. The virus can spread from a person to another and acts swift once in the body, infecting the brain and spinal cord.

The result is paralysis and potential death. Even though the virus isn’t common in most developed countries, polio could me a menace to people who travel out of the country often.

Poliovirus Transmission and Infection

The primary mode of transmission is via person-to-person contact. The virus resides in the human mouth or intestines meaning that it can be transmitted through contact with human excrement even in the tiniest bit.

A less common infection route is by inhaling sneeze or cough droplets. Any traces of feces in your hands when touching your mouth or putting infected items like toys into your mouth could lead to an infection.

Since infected people can be carriers for up to two weeks, it is hard to know who to avoid as apparently healthy people could be a threat. This combined with the fact that the virus can live out of the human body for weeks means that the risk of infection from contaminated food or water is very high especially in low sanitation areas.

Popular Poliovirus infection Symptoms

Most of the people with the poliovirus will show no visible symptoms. Worse still, up almost 25 percent of the infected will have nothing more than flu-like symptoms. These could be

  • A sore throat
  • Fever, nausea and tiredness
  • Headache and stomach pain

These symptoms could linger for a week or so before they ebb depending on whether your immune system was strong enough to fight off the virus or not.

If unaddressed the virus could develop into serious brain and spinal cord injury causing:

  • A constant feeling of pins and needles in your legs (paresthesia)
  • Meningitis (the infection of the spinal cord, brain or both)
  • Paralysis

Paralysis is the worst of the poliovirus infection symptoms. If the patient is lucky, the paralysis could affects limbs leaving the person disabled. In rare but more severe cases, the virus could affect core muscles, for instance muscles controlling your breathing hence leading to death.

When Does the Poliovirus Infection Become Polio?

Poliomyelitis, by definition, is a paralytic disease. Consequently, only people whose poliovirus infection results into paralytic disease are technically considered to have the disease.

With no actual control over how the virus will react once in the human body, it is always safe to stay clear of the virus.

Poliovirus Infection Prevention

As with most viral infections, preventing the infection is always better than trying to cure it. As of to date, there is no known cure for polio. The best medicine can offer to infected individuals is:

  • A proper nutritious diet
  • Bed rest with pain relievers
  • Moderate physical therapy to keep the muscles working
  • Drugs and medication to control the virus’ spread and effect

While things like improved sanitation and personal hygiene might reduce the spread of the virus, it is wise to take the polio virus at the designated times. There is a total of four shots in the regime.

  • When two months old
  • When four months old
  • Six to 18 months old
  • Between four and six years

Adults could also consider taking the vaccine when traveling to high prevalence areas. Even though the immunity gathered from childhood vaccines would be enough to keep you safe as long as you live, it would do you no harm to get an extra shot when you can.

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Understanding Strep Throat

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Image is from betterdailyhabits.com

Streptococcus Pyogenes

Streptococcus pyrogenes is the microorganism responsible for what’s called Strep Throat. It’s not the only bacteria that can cause the same symptoms, though. Neisseria is also a prime culprit. It’s common that people misdiagnose Strep, and that’s one of the reasons a medical examiner has to swab the throat when symptoms are noticed. Neisseria isn’t contagious, but Strep is; and very easily. Transmission methods include:

  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Touching

If you or your child has come down with Strep, the right thing to do is get checked out, and recover. Though symptoms may not be severe, their spread can become a scourge to the local community.

Symptoms

Symptoms can be similar to influenza or the common cold, but have a few key differences. In aggregate, primary symptoms of Strep infection include:

  • A sore throat that comes so quick, it may seem to hit from nowhere
  • Swallowing is more difficult
  • A headache
  • Fevers that can get past 102 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale
  • The raw, red look at the back of the throat may be the most notable symptom
  • Tonsils can have a white pus on them (but not everyone has tonsils these days)
  • Lymph nodes high and tender on the neck
  • Strep can also include a rash
  • No cough, no stuffy nose, no upper-respiratory difficulties
  • Abdominal pain (but not usually nausea)

With the cold or flu, you may have a sore throat sweep in out of nowhere. You may get headaches from mucous backing up in your sinuses, and mucous drainage could make swallowing become difficult. Fevers will likely develop, you might get tenderized lymph nodes, and you might have abdominal pain that forces evacuation of the stomach or bowels via nausea. But if you’ve got a cough, stuffy nose, or it’s hard to breathe, then it’s not Strep. Contrariwise, if your throat is red or there’s white puss all over your tonsils, you can be sure you’re probably not besieged with the cold or flu.

Causes

Certainly the bacteria is the primary cause, but tertiary causes which lead to that infection usually cumulate in a weakened immune system. Any given day, your body is assailed by an unknown–but doubtless high–number of microorganisms which don’t cause infection. You only get sick when your immune system drops the ball. That’s going to happen if you’re undernourished, overworked, or emotionally compromised. The extremely old and extremely young are at the highest risk for any kind of cold, because their immune systems aren’t functioning at full strength. Basically, stress of any kind can weaken the immune system. When this is coupled with poor diet and exercise, a difficult living arrangement, and the natural exigencies of life which come at even the best players in this game of existence, you’re at an increased likelihood of contracting an illness. There may be no way around contracting such sicknesses, except to maintain your health at its highest possible levels at all times so that when inevitable illness comes, it lasts for a shortened period of time, and its consequences are less dire. So yes, Streptococcus Pyogenes does cause the immune system response characterized by the symptoms of the sickness. But it isn’t the sole cause. Taking care of yourself and those around you in a sustainably healthy way may be the best method you can adopt against Strep. Fortunately, in most cases you’ll be through the sickness within 24 to 36 hours. Unfortunately, free clinics may take up to a week to give you results! If you suspect you have strep, drink lots of fluids, get the right vitamins, and rest for a few days.

 

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