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Signs and Symptoms of Dehydration

DehydrationThere is more to dehydration than just being very thirsty. When your body doesn’t get enough water, it cannot function properly. When you become dehydrated, it can be mild or severe. It all depends on how much fluid is missing from your body. It is normal to lose water throughout the day. It can happen when you sweat, when you cry, when you go to the bathroom, and even when you breathe. There are certain situations where you can lose too much water, and it can become a hazard to your health.

  • Diarrhea: When you have diarrhea, your intestinal tract cannot absorb water from the foods that you eat. Over time, this can result in severe dehydration.
  • Vomiting: If you have the flu or food poisoning, excessive vomiting can make it impossible to keep food and liquids down. This can quickly result in dehydration.
  • Excessive sweating: If you are sweating excessively, whether it be due to a fever, intense exercise, or being out in the hot sun, you can lose more water from your body than you can put in. This can quickly result in dehydration.
  • Frequent urination: There are certain drugs that can cause you to urinate frequently. Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol can also cause you to urinate excessively. This can cause you to become seriously dehydrated.

Signs of Mild Dehydration

If you become mildly dehydrated, you will experience a few minor symptoms. These symptoms include:

  • Thirst
  • A dry mouth
  • Dark, yellow urine
  • Dry skin
  • A mild headache
  • Muscle cramps

Signs of Severe Dehydration

The signs of severe hydration are more noticeable. These are signs that your body is becoming dangerously low on fluids and if you don’t replenish the water in your body soon, your health could be in jeopardy. Signs of severe dehydration include:

  • No need to urinate
  • Dark, yellow urine
  • Dizziness
  • Rapid breathing
  • Elevated heart rate
  • Sunken eyes
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of energy
  • Tiring very easily
  • Irritability
  • Confusion
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Low blood pressure

Treatment For Dehydration

The treatment for dehydration would depend on how dehydrated you are. If you are experiencing symptoms of mild dehydration, you would just need to sit down in a cool area and drink water. It can take drinking two quarts of water over a period of two to four hours to replenish the fluids that you have lost.

If you are suffering from symptoms of severe dehydration, you may need to seek medical assistance. In severe cases, you may not be able to get the amount of water that you need in your body fast enough by drinking alone. In severe cases, you should go to the hospital where you would be given IV fluids for several hours until you have replenished the water in your body.

How To Prevent Dehydration

Preventing dehydration is much safer than becoming dehydrated and then needing to treat it. There are several ways that you can prevent dehydration.

  • Try to drink 8 to 10 glasses of water each day. This will keep hydrated.
  • If you are vomiting, have a fever, or if you have diarrhea that lasts for longer than a day or two, seek medical attention. You may need IV fluids to keep from becoming dehydrated.
  • If you are going to be outside in the hot sun, bring along enough water. Try to drink 10 ounces of water every 30 minutes.
  • Drink water while you are exercising.

Dehydration can be very dangerous and in some cases, deadly. It is important to know the signs of dehydration and what you should do if you beleive that you are becoming dehydrated.

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Why Do We Have Allergies?

Allergies make thousands of people miserable in a day. We don’t even fully understand why our bodies bother to stir up such an uncomfortable reaction. Even though scientists and immunologists don’t have an exact explanation as to why we have allergies, the basics to this pertinent issues exist. The haze might still be there but scientists believe they have uncovered a molecular reason that could drive human allergic reactions.

What Are Allergies?

Allergies are otherwise immune reactions gone wrong. They will upset the stomach, activate sneezing, lead to skin rashes or even lead to catastrophic anaphylactic shock. The reaction occurs when your immune system detects a foreign body and activates a series of reactions meant to remove that foreign body from our system.

This is a normal reaction that occurs when the body detects germs and pathogens only that the allergen in this case would be relatively harmless to the body. It could be as simple as pollen, dust or egg protein.

How Does the Allergy Process Occur

When the allergen enters the body, your plasma cells release immunoglobulin E antibodies specific to that allergen. These antibodies make their way to mast cells located in areas like your skin and the mucous membranes. These cells are in charge of inflammatory responses that improve the way your body reacts to foreign objects.

The other time your body encounters the allergen, the Mast Cells will release histamines, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, cells that will in turn trigger a wide range of allergic reactions whose sole purpose is to get rid of the allergen before it gets deeper into your body.

This will lead to:

  • Constricted airways in the case of asthma
  • Sneezing and runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Dry cough
  • Increased phlegm or runny nose due to hypersecretion of mucus
  • Itchy or rashy skin

So far, the best way to fight an allergic reaction is by taking specific antihistamines that will cool down the rate at which the body reacts to the allergen. Scientists are yet to devise a fool-proof way of fighting allergens that will make you immune to that specific compound that gets your immune system tripping.

Drug Free Alternatives to Combat Allergies

Most people opt to keep of their triggers in order to avoid allergic reactions. Stocking a couple of reaction specific antihistamines also seems to be a great way to come prepared since most of the allergens are almost inevitable.

Apart from this abstinence and medical intervention, there are other medicine free approaches that help people with allergic reactions live an almost normal life.

If you are not allergic to honey, you can use it to accustom your body to pollen and reduce asthma or allergic reactions to pollen. Locally produced and unprocessed honey is the best. Use it sparingly until you are sure your body can tolerate it.

Acupuncture is a mythical treatment procedure that delivers results. Weekly acupuncture treatments can lead to fewer breathing problems and could be a great way out to people allergic to pollen.

A healthy diet and healthy living gives you more wiggle room. A research proved that junk food is directly related to allergies and asthma especially in kids.

Allergic reactions don’t have a perfect cure. The best you can do is mitigate the effects and be ready to appease the symptoms once they kick in. At least this will be our way around these unwanted and uncomfortable immune responses until doctors and scientists find a way to teach our bodies that allergens aren’t as harmful as it thinks they are.


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Allergies & Their Genetic Pathways

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An allergy is defined as a condition where the immune system reacts abnormally to a foreign substance. There are many different types of allergies. These include:

  • Medications
  • Food
  • Pollen
  • Latex
  • Animal Dander
  • Mold

The Genetic Risk

The tendency to develop allergies is genetic, therefore, they are hereditary, which means they are passed down from parent to child. However, this does not happen 100% of the time. Just because you or your spouse may have allergies doesn’t mean your child will definitely inherit them. For example, while approximately 17.6 million adults have been diagnosed with hay fever, less than half of that number of children, 6.6 million, have inherited the same allergy.

Additionally, children do not inherit a particular allergy, rather they inherit the tendency to develop them. For example, a parent may be allergic to pollen and develop hay fever, while their child may be allergic to chocolate and develop atopic eczema or dermatitis. Conversely, some children develop allergies when no known family member has them. Chances are if you are allergic to one substance, you are likely to be allergic to others.

Developing allergies because of your genetic links is known as atopic. While over half the children from atopic families will develop allergies, only one in five from unaffected families will be diagnosed. In families where both parents have allergies, this risk of their children inheriting them is slightly higher. If only one parent has been diagnosed, that risk decreases, however, it is important to note that if the mother has allergies, there is a slightly greater chance her children will develop them than if the father does.

The Allergic March

An allergy often follows a particular pattern where it is diagnosed in infancy through the toddler stage and into childhood, sometimes persisting into adulthood when a lifelong condition is diagnosed. When one allergic disease subsides and another takes its place, it is called the Allergic March. A common pattern is when atopic eczema leads to a food allergy, then asthma, and finally rhinitis. Some children, instead of experiencing the Allergic March, will experience a cumulative effect, meaning that one allergy does not replace another; it just gets added onto what they already have. Keep in mind, however, that all children are different; some may simply develop one allergy for life, instead of experiencing the Allergic March or a cumulative effect.

Common Allergens

Unfortunately, there are many allergens out there. The most common types are airborne and food. Some airborne allergies include:

  • Pollen
  • Dust Mites
  • Mold
  • Pets
  • Cockroaches

Food allergies include:

  • Wheat
  • Soy
  • Peanuts and tree nuts
  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Eggs
  • Cow’s milk.

Other common allergens include:

  • Insects, such as a bee sting
  • Chemicals
  • Medications

There are also cross-reactions and cross contamination. Cross-reactions happen when someone who has an allergy to one thing, has a reaction to another. For example, someone who is allergic to birch tree pollen might react to eating an apple if it contains a protein similar to one in the pollen. Another example is that people who are allergic to latex often react to bananas, avocados, chestnuts, and kiwi.

Cross contamination happens when you come in contact with a substance you are not allergic to, but it was processed with something you are during production or packaging. It can also happen at restaurants or even at home when the same utensils or surfaces are used for more than one type of food.

While genetics is not the sole cause of allergies, it has been proven that many allergies are hereditary, so you should be evaluated if you have a family history.

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MD AllergyPro Rhinitis Testing




Rhinitis is One of the Most Frequently Reported Conditions in the United States

  • Symptoms of allergic rhinitis include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching of the nose
  • Allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis overlap, have overlapping symptoms, making accurate diagnosis a challenge
  • Headache, fatigue, cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbance may occur, leading to significant detriments to quality of life and performance at school and work

Allergic or Nonallergic?

  • The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (in patients with rhinitis symptoms) has been estimated to range from as low as 9% to more than 40%
    • Only 35% of patients taking non-sedating antihistamines were found to be allergic via IgE blood testing
  • Routine history and physical examination alone may not always provide accurate evidence to distinguish specific allergic conditions
    • Diagnostic accuracy rarely exceeds 50%

Appropriate management of rhinitis is an important part of effectively managing comorbidities, including asthma.


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Complete Pathogen Detection from MD GeneticPro




48-hour Results

Get right to the source of infections with our comprehensive infection management program, utilizing rapid molecular diagnostic testing to quickly identify over 90% of the pathogens that cause two of the most common and life-threatening infections in long-term care; respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

Results produced within 48 hours give clinicians the ability to accurately determine treatment paths based on the specific infectious agent rather than based only one clinical symptoms.

Advantages to Pathogen Detection Testing  

  • All-in-one test in one sample within 48 hours compared to separate tests in 3-5 days for cultures
  • Identify causative co-infections with the same sample in the same test
  • >95% sensitivity and specificity compared to the low sensitivity and high false negative rates of cultures and other methods


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The Main Causes & Symptoms of Juvenile Arthritis

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Juvenile arthritis is a disease that affects children ages 16 and under, and it involves inflammation of the tissue that lines the inside of the joints. This tissue is called synovium.

What are the Causes?

Most forms of juvenile arthritis are caused by a malfunction of the immune system, which places it in the category of autoimmune disorders. An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body attacks it’s own healthy cells and tissues. The result is inflammation of the synovium.

However, not all cases of juvenile arthritis are autoimmune. Another cause is labeled an autoinflammatory condition. The disease process behind an autoinflammatory condition is different from that of an autoimmune disorder.

While autoinflammatory conditions result in inflammation and involve an overactive immune system, the similarities between it and an autoimmune disease end there. With an autoimmune response, the body releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack the body. An autoinflammatory condition involves a more primitive part of the immune system, and the reason it malfunctions remains unknown.

What is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis?

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis is the commonly accepted term for the seven different types of arthritis that affect children. These are:

  • Systemic
  • Oligoarticular
  • Polyarticular with a negative Rheumatoid factor
  • Polyarticular with a positive Rheumatoid factor
  • Psoriatic
  • Enthesitis-related
  • Undifferentiated

What are the Symptoms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis?

General symptoms include:

  • Joint pain
  • Tenderness
  • Stiffness
  • Warmth
  • Swelling

These symptoms last for more than six continuous weeks. The following symptoms are specific to each type of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis:

  • Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis – Arthritis symptoms with or preceded by an intermittent fever that lasts for at least two weeks. One or more of the following symptoms accompany it: lymph node, liver, or spleen enlargement, inflammation of the lining of the lungs or heart, a flat, pale, pink rash that does not itch and can move from one part of the body to another.
  • Oligoarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis – Arthritis affecting one to four joints for the first six months of the disease.
  • Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (Negative Rheumatoid Factor) – Arthritis in at least five joints for the first six months of the disease and all tests for the presence of Rheumatoid Factor proteins are negative.
  • Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (Positive Rheumatoid Factor) – Arthritis in at least five joints for the first six months of the disease and two out of three tests for the presence of Rheumatoid Factor proteins are positive. Tests must be taken at least three months apart.
  • Psoriatic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis – Patient has both arthritis and psoriasis or arthritis and at least two of the following: a relative diagnosed with psoriasis, nail splitting or pitting, or inflammation of one entire toe or finger.
  • Enthesitis-related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis – This occurs where a joint capsule, tendon, or ligament attaches to the bone. The most common locations are the Achilles tendon behind the ankle and around the knee. Both arthritis and inflammation must be present or either one with at least two of the following: inflammation of the sacroiliac joint with inflammatory bowel disease or acute inflammation of the eye, enthesitis arthritis, arthritis in males over six years, a positive HLA blood test, a family history of ankylosing spondylitis, or inflammation at the base of the spine or in the lower back area.
  • Undifferiented Arthritis – Symptoms do not fit with any of the six previous categories.

Researchers now believe that both environmental and genetics play a part in the development of juvenile arthritis.

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Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

Microscopic view of sicke cells causing anemia disease.

There are many kinds of diseases that are associated with blood. Some are contagious diseases. Others are developed within the body because of lifestyle or unhealthy habits. On the other hand, there are also such diseases that are inherited, and one of these diseases is sickle cell.

What Is Sickle Cell Disease?

Sickle cell disease, or SCD, is a red blood cell disorder that is passed on from parents to children. This red blood cell is identified as sickle hemoglobin or hemoglobin S. There are many people with abnormal hemoglobin such as hemoglobin S, but the most common type of SCD is hemoglobin SS or sickle-cell anemia.


Our body tissues require oxygen, and this is being supplied by our hemoglobin or red blood cells throughout our body. Since hemoglobin has a round shape, it becomes flexible enough to easily flow through blood vessels. It’s soft and elastic, so it can fit freely flow along with other red blood cells.

Meanwhile, sickle cell has a sickle shape similar with that of a leech. Inside the sickle cell, there are strands that form such a shape, and these stands are hard. As a result, sickle cells don’t easily flow through blood vessels. Instead, they stick to the wall and block the blood vessel. Because of this, the supply of oxygen to our tissues are slowed down or even blocked completely.

When your body tissues don’t have enough supply of oxygen, you may suffer from severe pain crises. Such pain comes without early signs or warning, and this usually ends up being sent to the hospital for immediate treatment. In some cases, it can also harm or damage organs such as lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, and liver.


SCD is only inherited from a parent as it’s not contagious nor developed overtime. Nevertheless, the probability of inheriting sickle cell disease is low because even if your parent has SCD doesn’t necessarily mean you have also inherited it. There are factors that affect the transfer of SCD such as another parent’s condition. This means that both parents should have SCD in order to pass it on to their children. If only one of the parents has SCD, the disease will not be passed down.


There are different symptoms of sickle cell disease, and they vary from one patient to another depending on health condition. Nonetheless, these are some common symptoms you should observe:

  • Eye Problems
  • Slow Growth
  • Infections
  • Swelling
  • Pain

Swelling takes place in hands and feet; however, chronic pain is usually experienced by young adults who have SCD. If not managed properly, it may lead to bone damage and ulcers. Meanwhile, vision problems happen when eyes have the lack the supply of blood as a result of sickle cell blockage.

When You Should See a Doctor

Symptoms may be a false sign or just a sign of another different disease. It’s difficult to predict until you see a doctor. Visit a doctor if you see and experience the following signs:

  • Yellow Skin
  • Frequent Fever
  • Abnormal Swelling
  • Episodes of Pain


The only cure for SCD is stem-cell transplant or bone marrow transplant. However, it has a lot of challenges to do so. Aside from the fact that it is difficult to find a donor, only those who are16 years old or below are able to undergo such an operation. Moreover, the operation is risky, and it sometimes leads to death. Nevertheless, antibiotics are administered to cure the crises or pain.


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Difference Between Having a Rash and Having Eczema


Eczema,is a reaction to an external or internal allergen stimulus. There are listed, according to the Eczema Association, at least eight various kinds of eczema, and each type of eczema warrants a different healing option.

Understanding Eczema

Eczema considered chronic and long-term forms red, scaly, itchy patches on the skin that can range from mild to more severe.

The itching that develops can cause eczema can get so severe that the areas start to bleed. Intense skin scratching, in turn, places you at risk for secondary skin infections.

Eczema develops anywhere on the body, such as the face, arms, neck, legs, and chest. Symptoms vary from person to person. Eczema is migratory and frequently does not attack the same part of your body.

Eczema at its worse looks bad to other people to the point that people think you have a condition that they can catch. Eczema is not a contagious disease, but puts you in a heartbreaking dilemma.

Eczema is found to be hereditary or stems from an allergic reaction to some substance, and your doctor determines which type of eczema is bothering you, what triggers your eczema, and what healing methods are best to eliminate your eczema problem.

Eczema is a common problem in today’s society with many people like you trying to conquer its effects.There are no medical options that eliminate eczema in its entirety, so the goal is to manage this disease and keep it at bay.

Once a baby is said to have eczema, the chances are that this condition follows them as they grow and remains with them into the adult years. You do not have to have eczema as a child to develop it in your adult years.

If you experience any or maybe all of the following symptoms, you may be dealing eczema. Your doctor must determine which type and what health care options to use.

  • Patches of red skin
  • Skin that is dry and sensitive to touch
  • Notices dark patches of skin
  • Skin areas take on a rough, scaly look
  • You rusting on the top outer layer of skin
  • Have areas of swelling

Eczema is hard to deal with because when you think you have eliminated this condition it flare-ups once again.


You can develop a rash from an unlimited number of sources such as the environment, medication, cleaning supplies, stress, heat, cold, fevers, pet hair, food sources, and more.

Sometimes you may develop a rash without any indication of why or how the rash developed. In all instances, you just have to wait for it to disappear. No one can catch a rash from you.

A rash, not considered a chronic condition is short-term. General signs and symptoms include changes to the skin in color, appearance, or texture.

A rash can develop any place on the body at any time. A rash stems from your skin coming in contact with an external allergen or when you ingest something causing an allergic reaction, such as a drug or food you know you have an allergy. You have a rash if you notice,

  • Changes in skin color
  • Warmth to the area
  • Bumpy areas or hives
  • Chapped skin
  • Dry, cracked skin
  • Blistered skin

Types of rashes are extensive and varied. You may know what caused your rash, such as, you are allergic to fish and you eat fish, or you have a fever of over 101 degrees, or you were in the sun too long. Certain conditions cause rashes such as the chickenpox and measles.

There are over-the-counter preparations to eliminate itchy skin such as antihistamine pills like Benadryl and itch-relieving creams.

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Taking Care of Your Bladder

Woman Drinking Water

Your bladder is a hollow organ that holds the urine that is produced by the kidneys. The urine remains stored in the bladder until you go to the bathroom. If you don’t take care of your bladder properly, there are certain conditions that you can suffer from both now and in the future. A few of the most common bladder issues include:

  • Frequent bladder infections
  • Interstitial cystitis: A chronic bladder condition that causes bladder pain and frequent and urgent urination.
  • Overactive bladder: A serious condition that squeezes urine out of the bladder at inopportune times.
  • Urinary incontinence: A condition where a person is unable to control their bladder.
  • Bladder cancer

To avoid these conditions and to ensure the health of your bladder, there are a few tips that you should follow.

#1 Let It All Out

Women are especially susceptible to urinary tract infections that involve the bladder. Frequent infections of the urinary tract and the bladder can cause permanent damage to your bladder over time. When you go to the bathroom, it is important to empty your bladder completely each time. If you tighten up your muscles and you stop urinating before your bladder is empty, the urine that didn’t make it out of the bladder will bring bacteria back into the urinary tract and bladder which will cause an infection.

#2 Drink Plenty of Fluids

Drinking plenty of fluids will help to flush out your bladder. It will also flush your urinary tract, preventing you from developing an infection. It is recommended that you drink six to eight glasses of water each day. If you find that you are urinating too often, cut back slightly.

#3 Get Moving

If you spend your day sitting at a desk, fluid can build up in your legs during the day. At night, the fluid build-up will cause you to empty your bladder. The longer you leave the fluid in your bladder, the higher the chances are of developing an infection. To prevent this, try walking throughout the day. You can also try raising your legs to your waist and flexing your calf muscles.

#4 Avoid Tobacco

Each year, over 50,000 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer. According to a recent study, cigarette smokers are two to three times more likely to develop bladder cancer than non-smokers. If you are a smoker, now is the time to quit. It will greatly reduce your risk of developing bladder cancer and a variety of other health conditions.

#5 Drink Cranberry Juice

The best way to avoid bladder infections is to drink cranberry juice. The ingredients in the juice can keep harmful bacteria from sticking to the walls of your urinary tract. This will keep the bacteria from moving up into your bladder. If you don’t like cranberry juice, you can also take cranberry tablets.

#6 Watch What You Eat

There are certain foods that can cause bladder pain and frequent urination. If you suffer from these issues, avoid acidic food such as orange juice and tomatoes.

#7 Drink Less Before Bed

It is not healthy for your bladder to remain full all night. This is why you should drink fewer fluids two hours before bedtime. Also, avoid caffeinated drinks before bed because caffeine will make you urinate more often. If your bladder remains empty at night, the chances of an infection greatly decrease.

If you want to avoid bladder infections and chronic bladder problems in the future, you should start taking care of your bladder now. Each of the tips listed above will ensure a healthy bladder now and in the future.

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5 Tips in Treating Allergies



There’s more than one option in methods of treatment for allergies. Following is a list of five strategies you can use to help curtail symptoms and survive this year’s allergy season.

Know The Weather

Dry and moist weather can change the pattern of pollen release in plants. An exceptionally wet spring can lead to extended pollination, which leads to allergic reaction. Meanwhile, an incredibly dry spell during Summer can also negatively affect sinus function, which can also lead to an allergic reaction. Knowing the season will help you prepare secondary measures. One good way to get through a dry Summer is Flonase. Though it’s over-the-counter, you should still double-check with you doctor to ensure it’s right for you. This solution isn’t a permanent fix, but it does aid in coping.

Local Honey

While some dispute the veracity of this cure, many vet it. The idea is similar to that of vaccination. Local honey made from local flowers has components of local pollen, which when ingested by your body and processed by your immune system can be “uploaded”, as it were, into your body’s “approved” list. Allergic reaction happens due to overt immune system response; local honey can help dampen this response.

Medicinal Solutions

Antihistamines act as a decongestant and are recommendable for allergy sufferers in moist climates. Decongestants in general are also very helpful; but these solutions do depend on your personal conditions, tolerances; etc. For example, Benadryl works, but it knocks most people out like a light. Know yourself, and ask your doctor for recommended medicinal aids. While these can lessen allergy symptoms, they can also foster dependency.


Believe it or not, you can cut down your allergic symptoms through an act of will via self-hypnosis. In combination with other treatments, this method has proved somewhat successful in clinical studies.

Environmental Control

If you know what gives you an allergic reaction, you can avoid that allergen. For example, a feline allergy can be avoided by keeping your distance from cats. The same is possible with dogs. Pet dander in general can be eliminated as an allergic inciter if pets are eliminated from the place in which you live. If you have extreme Summer allergies, stay indoors as much as you can and where a mask from the office to the car, or something of that ilk. The main drawback of this technique is effectiveness. Certainly, it’s effective when used; but you can’t always control your environment. If your car breaks down in a field that is pollinating, and you have to change a tire, you’re going to have to deal with an allergic reaction on top of it.

Can Allergies Be Cured?

WebMD doesn’t think that allergies can be cured. The rest of the internet has other opinions, including things like a nasal flush. There are some who say that allergies can be cured through a regiment of removing all allergy-inciting agents and exposure to those same agents after the fact. There are even stories of acupuncture being the one thing that saved the day. The truth is, allergic reactions can come and go on their own. Youth who’ve been allergy free for twenty years can move and wake up with perpetual sniffles, then transition to middle age and find the allergies recede. Ultimately, the best way to deal with allergies is to know yourself and to prepare beforehand. Except for severe allergic reactions, oftentimes the pain comes from itchiness that can’t be ignored, and increasingly raw skin as a result. Refrain from scratching, and where possible control your environment. Certain treatments also help assuage the pain.

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