Types of toxicology testing
There are four types of toxicology testing. They include workplace drug testing, hospital drug testing, athletic drug testing, and forensic drug testing. Each of the drug tests is supposed to give reports that are relevant to the information sought.
Workplace drug testing
You are required to have drug testing before being accepted in certain positions such airline industries, federal transportation, and the medical field among other jobs where safety is of great importance. Many more employees seek drug testing in order to reduce instances of drug abuse at workplace. People that abuse drugs experience psychological and physical challenges that lower their productivity and at the same time make them anti-social.
Before job confirmation, you are required to give a sample of your urine or saliva for testing. In stricter cases, you may be required to give a piece of hair or sweat for testing. Other companies conduct random drug tests to their workers to ensure that none starts abusing drugs where employed. Common drugs that are checked include alcohol, some prescription drugs, and herbal medication among other drugs.
Clinical drug testing
Clinical drug tests are often made to assist the health practitioners’ review your treatment or diagnose some symptoms suspected to be emanating from prescription. The form of drug testing is common with patients that have taken an overdose or drug poisoning. It is also done in cases of drunk driving and accidents where drug abuse is suspected.
The physician does a venipuncture and draws out some blood that is tested for concentrations of the suspected drug. Sometimes, you may be required to give urine samples. The method used to test for the drug is based on the kind of drug that is suspected. In most of the cases involving drug abuse and accidents, physicians do confirmatory tests in addition to initial tests. This is normally meant to ensure that there is foolproof evidence for legal purposes. There is also a urine chemistry test that may include protein, glucose, or electrolyte tests to help diagnose some health problems with ease.
Athletic drug testing
Athletic drug testing is done to ensure that athletes have not used performance-enhancing drugs that are banned I competitive level athletic games. Common organizations that carry out this kind of drug testing in USA include Olympics committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) AND us Anti-0Doping Agency among others. Athletes go through a drug screening laboratory before undertaking the sports. Common examples of drugs tested include Luteinizing hormone, anabolic steroids, narcotics, diuretics, and cannabinoids among other drugs.
Forensic toxicology analysis
This is a postmortem toxicology testing done on the deceased for medico-0legal purposes. These may include criminal and death investigations and the evidence may be admissible in a court of law.
Common instances where forensic drug testing is done include cases of accidental death involving a vehicle, suicide or homicide after suspected drug abuse. Members of the family may also request an autopsy for deaths that do not fall under the above categories. In addition, from collecting samples of the body for testing, forensic experts may comb the scene of crime for any drugs, medications or any written medical relate information.
A pathologist does forensic toxicology testing. He or she may take specimens that include hair, urine, bone, and blood or organ tissue. Blood is normally preserved in sodium fluoride. There may also be tissues collected in the brain and the stomach. For legal purposes, the pathologist may do confirmatory tests on top of the initial test.
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