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Information and Treatment Guide: Celiac Disease

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Celiac Disease: Patient Guide and Treatment Information

For people with celiac disease, going gluten-free is a medical necessity rather than a choice. Celiac disease is a serious digestive disorder that is triggered by the protein gluten. When people with celiac disease eat foods that have gluten, such as barley, rye and wheat, their immune system responds by damaging the intestine. Over time, this results in the body being unable to absorb nutrients. Celiac disease leads to a host of problems, including:

  • Malnourishment
  • Osteoporosis
  • Thyroid Disease
  • Cancer

Symptoms of Celiac Disease

Here are some of the symptoms of celiac disease. If you have these symptoms, check with your doctor for an official diagnosis. There are many other diseases that could be causing these symptoms, as well.

  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Swelling in the abdomen or feeling of fullness
  • Foul-smelling, pale stools that float
  • Nausea
  • Gas
  • Stomach pain
  • Vomiting

How is Celiac Disease Diagnosed?

Celiac disease can be diagnosed by your physician. They will ask you for a complete family medical history. Then, you physician may order a physical exam and other tests, such as genetic tests, blood test or a biopsy.

Treatments for Celiac Disease

There is no cure for celiac disease. The only treatment is to remain on a gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet will significantly reduce the symptoms of this disorder and may eventually end the symptoms altogether as the villi of your intestines are healed. Eating any gluten at all will restart the damage to your intestine. Therefore, you will have to remain on a gluten-free diet for the rest of your life.

In some cases, the damage to the intestines is so significant that eating a gluten free diet will not help. If this happens, the only way to get nutrients is intravenously.

Living with Celiac Disease

Living with celiac disease requires a big change in your diet. A true gluten-free diet will limit what you can eat. You cannot eat many of the staples, including:

  • Cereals
  • Pasta
  • Crackers
  • Cakes
  • Cookies
  • Ice cream
  • Instant coffee
  • Ketchup
  • Mustard
  • Yogurt
  • Pizza
  • Processed foods

Read food labels carefully before eating any food to be sure that it does not contain wheat or any other type of gluten. Some patients with celiac disease can eat oats and others cannot. So, if you have celiac disease, ask your doctor whether or not you should consume oats. Just be aware that packaged oats are sometimes contaminated with wheat.

It is also a good idea to pay close attention to over-the-counter capsules, vitamins and tablets as many of these contain wheat starch, which is used as a binding agent in capsules and tablets. Gluten is present in barley so avoid beer. Brandy, whiskey, wine and other alcohols are fine as they do not contain gluten.

It is always a good idea to work with a dietitian, who can provide you with more information about a gluten-free diet.

When eating in restaurants, you will have to ask what the ingredients are in each dish that you order. Eating just a small amount of gluten will cause some people with celiac disease to vomit or have severe diarrhea that lasts for hours.

Even though you have celiac disease, you can still enjoy a healthy diet. You can get pasta and bread that are made from other types of flour, such as rice flour. In addition, many food companies have significantly increased their gluten-free offerings over the last couple of years as gluten-free has become quite popular. In addition, you can enjoy fresh vegetables, fruits, fish and meats, as long as they have not been artificially processed.

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Symptoms of Lupus

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Millions of people suffer with the autoimmune disease known as Lupus. This chronic inflammatory disease affects a person’s immune system. Rather than fighting to protect your body from viruses and bacteria, the immune system actually attacks various organs and tissues. Since, Lupus can affect different parts of the body, its symptoms vary greatly from person to person. The intensity of these symptoms also varies greatly, but most people experience flares, which will worsen and improve randomly.

Below is a look at some of the main symptoms of Lupus.

  • Anemia – Characterized by lower than normal levels of red blood cells in the body’s blood.
  • Chest Pain – Chest pain that occurs when taking a deep breathe. This can be caused by an inflammation of the pleura membrane that surrounds the lungs, also referred to as Pleurisy.
  • Dry or Swollen Eyes – Lupus can cause dry eyes or even swelling and pain in the area surrounding the eyes.
  • Fatigue – Lupus oftentimes causes extreme fatigue that is typically more severe during and immediately after a flare.
  • Fever – Many patients experience unexplainable fevers.
  • Hair Loss – Depending on which organs and tissues are affected, Lupus may cause hair loss.
  • Headaches – Many Lupus patient complain of severe headaches, which may be accompanied by confusion or even memory loss.
  • Joint Pain – Lupus can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness of joints in the areas affected by the disease,
  • Photosensitivity – Some Lupus patients also experience a sensitivity to the sun and the light. In these cases, it is best to avoid direct sunlight when possible.
  • Rash – Many Lupus patients, but not all, experience a distinguishable rash on their face. This rash typically takes on a butterfly shape and spreads from the bridge of the nose outwards over both cheeks.
  • Raynaud’s Phenomenon – This phenomenon causes a person’s fingers and/or toes to turn a whitish or bluish color when subjected to intense stress or extreme colds.
  • Shortness of Breath – In addition to chest pain, Lupus patients may experience periods of shortness of breath.
  • Skin Lesions – These types of lesions are most common among those whose Lupus affects their skin. Overexposure to direct sunlight should be avoided because this can worsen the lesions.
  • Swelling – Lupus patients commonly show signs of swelling in their feet and legs.
  • Unusual Blood Clotting – When Lupus affect the blood cells, a person may experience unusual blood clotting.
  • Ulcers – Some people with Lupus also experience frequent ulcers in the nose and/or mouth.

Lupus is sometime referred to as “The Great Imitator” because its symptoms are very similar to several other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid problems and fibromyalgia. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should schedule an appointment with your primary care physician to discuss these concerns.

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MD AllergyPro Rhinitis Testing

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Rhinitis is One of the Most Frequently Reported Conditions in the United States

  • Symptoms of allergic rhinitis include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching of the nose
  • Allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis overlap, have overlapping symptoms, making accurate diagnosis a challenge
  • Headache, fatigue, cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbance may occur, leading to significant detriments to quality of life and performance at school and work

Allergic or Nonallergic?

  • The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (in patients with rhinitis symptoms) has been estimated to range from as low as 9% to more than 40%
    • Only 35% of patients taking non-sedating antihistamines were found to be allergic via IgE blood testing
  • Routine history and physical examination alone may not always provide accurate evidence to distinguish specific allergic conditions
    • Diagnostic accuracy rarely exceeds 50%

Appropriate management of rhinitis is an important part of effectively managing comorbidities, including asthma.

 

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Understanding Addiction

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The word addiction originates from a Latin term meaning enslaved to or bound by, which is a very apt way to describe it. Addiction’s influence on the brain is very powerful, which is why it is so challenging for you to overcome it. It hijacks the brain in three distinct ways:

  • A strong craving for a particular substance or activity
  • Loss of control of it
  • Continuing with it despite negative consequences

Experts in the field of addiction believed for many years that the only source of addictions were alcohol and drugs. Advanced diagnostic studies of the human brain and subsequent studies have proven otherwise, however. Pleasurable activities such as gambling, shopping, sex, and food can also take over your brain.

A Common Problem

Many people experiment with drugs or alcohol or find themselves engaged in an activity that they have become addicted to. Nearly 23 million Americans, approximately one out of every ten people, are addicted to alcohol, drugs, or some other harmful activity. The reasons are vast. Some of them are:

  • Curiosity
  • Relieve stress, anxiety, or depression
  • Pain management
  • Improve athletic performance
  • Fit in with others
  • To have a good time.

Engaging in these activities does not automatically lead to addiction, however. Everyone is different. The way to determine an addiction has less to do with what or how much you are participating in it and more to do with the consequences of it.

If the chosen activity is causing problems in your relationships, or at work, home or school, you probably have an addiction.

The Pleasure Center

Your brain reacts to all pleasures the same way. It doesn’t matter whether we are engaging in addictive behavior or not. Technically, pleasurable behavior causes your brain to release something called dopamine. It originates from a cluster of nerve cells located in the cerebral cortex portion of your brain. This connection is so consistent that doctors actually refer to this portion of the brain as the pleasure center.

The result of addiction is that your brain actually goes through physical changes of structure and function. It begins with recognizing pleasure and ends with compulsive behavior. It is a chronic disease not unlike other diseases such as heart disease or diabetes where the heart or pancreas is physically affected and changed.

The Addict’s Brain

Recent research has indicated that the changes to your brain are rather complicated. Every time you participate in addictive behavior and your brain’s pleasure center is flooded with dopamine, it causes a chain reaction. A portion of your brain associated with memory records the activity and creates a rapid sense of satisfaction while another area of your brain creates a conditioned response to it. Addiction stimulates this circuit of your brain and then overloads it.

When the pleasure associated with your addiction subsides, the memory centers in your brain remember it and cause you to want to recreate it. There are certain environmental cues that trigger those memories, at which time an intense craving develops.

Are You Addicted?

If you answer yes to any of the following questions, it is time to seek a professional evaluation:

  • Are you using or indulging in the activity more than before?
  • Do you go through withdrawal symptoms without it?
  • Have you ever lied to anyone about it?

 

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What to Avoid When You Have a Gluten Allergy

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Do you or a family member suffer from frequent or infrequent brain fog, lethargy, painful stomach maladies or a combination of each? The struggle is real. The acknowledgement of gluten allergies in the last decade has recently illuminated the often debilitating symptoms that affect upwards of 18 million people in the United States. One grain of wheat could make the difference between a better quality of life and barely getting by. So what can you do to stop something so seemingly insignificant from negatively impacting the way you live? Discover what to look for and what to avoid in your day-to-day routine to avoid needless pain and suffering.

Show Me The Ingredients

When going gluten-free, consummate foodies may find the “food lifestyle” change a little daunting. It doesn’t have to be. Here are a few ways you can satisfy your taste buds and avoid the dangers gluten allergies can bring to your everyday nutriments.

1. Be vigilant. It’s simple, read the nutritional information! Do this and at the very least you will be aware of the possibility of gluten in your food choices.

2. Don’t just read the ingredients, read by the asterisk. For gluten sensitive stomachs, cross contamination of food items in factories that also process nuts, soy and wheat products can affect the most sensitive of stomachs. Many packaged products have additional information marked by an asterisk at the beginning or end of their ingredient list. If the product is produced in the same building as wheat products, you may want to set the food item back on the shelf.

3. Know your trigger words. Dextrin, barley, bleached flour, bulgur, beer, brown flour, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, various malt products and yeast products in food can cause the troubling and debilitating symptoms of a gluten allergy attack. If you see any of these in the ingredients, it’s best to steer clear and opt for a clearly marked “gluten-free” substitution.

4. Stay positive and look for options. The more options you find to replace gluten-rich products with gluten-free delicious alternatives the less tempted you’ll be to indulge in that little bit of tainted decadence that can bring on fogginess, cramping, nausea or shooting pains.

5. It is best to abstain. If you can’t find the information you need to determine without a doubt that what you put in your mouth is untouched by gluten, don’t bite. If there is a snack you just can’t live without, do the research. With gluten allergy awareness quickly becoming a must-have for food-producing companies in the current market, food companies post gluten information on their websites for quick and easy answers.

6. Expect nothing. What you may think as naturally gluten free, may be contaminated in processing and packaging. Gluten-free products are not guaranteed to remain gluten-free. Some companies may change the ingredients they use at their own discretion. Many companies engage in their own comprehensive food-testing and may have discovered gluten contamination in the process. If you peruse the numerous gluten-free food lists online that are periodically updated online, what was once gluten free could now be off the list.

Gluten isn’t just found in various foods. Shampoos, cosmetic products, medications, vitamins and even stamps and envelopes may all contain a form of gluten. From hot dogs to precooked flour dusted French fries, gluten is an ingredient that continues to find its way into our lives, but it is possible to avoid it. Thankfully as awareness grows, so does the list of food alternatives. Protect yourself by never making assumptions and you’ll be able to exemplify what it means to live a gluten-free life!

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Types of Metabolic Disorders

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Numerous types of metabolic disorders exist in the contemporary world. While some are relatively minor, others are major and can be life threatening. The moment you notice symptoms of any metabolic disorder, it is prudent to visit your doctor to have it attended to before it escalates into something dangerous.

The primary cause of metabolic conditions is a malfunction in the body’s metabolism. In some instances, though, metabolism disorders arise from inadequate chemical reactions. Below are some of the main metabolic disorders:

  • Obesity

Obesity can be brought about by a plethora of factors. Among these factors are metabolic problems. There are diseases which have been confirmed to be a trigger factor for obesity. Some of those diseases are thyroid disorders among others. Individuals who have a low basal metabolic rate tend to be fatter than their counterparts who have high metabolic rates.

  • Hyperthyroidism

This is another major metabolic disorder characterized by too much hormone being produced by the thyroid. The thyroid is located in the area front of the larynx and is a key gland for metabolism. It is the organ responsible for the production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the two thyroid hormones critical to body metabolism of fats, emotional heats as well as heat. If these hormones are produced in excess, the result is the triggering of an entire series of metabolic disorders that is capable of producing serious or less serious damage to an individual’s health.

  • Hypothyroidism

This is a condition brought about when the thyroid produces insufficient thyroid hormones. It is also a major cause of the occurrence of goiter. Goiter is brought about when there is an increase in the size of the thyroid. The increase is seen in the appearance of a bulge on the front side of the neck. The proper weight of the thyroid gland is usually about 20-30 grams. The weight of an enlarged thyroid gland can be as serious as one kilogram. This can easily become one of the leading causes of difficulty in breathing as well as swallowing.

If left untreated, hypothyroidism can cause cretinism. Cretinism is a physical condition which is characterized by poor physical and mental development. Other characteristic physical symptoms may include waxy skin, belly and speech problems.

Low thyroid hormones can also be a cause of other far-reaching conditions including myxedema coma. This condition is preceded by characteristic symptoms including hypotension, slow breathing, extremely dry skin, and hyposensitivity to cold.

  • Diabetes

This is a metabolic disorder characterized by excess sugar in the blood and urine. Diabetes is of two types.

– Diabetes insipidus which is a result of the lack of vasopressin hormone.

– Diabetes mellitus which is as a result of the alteration in sugar metabolism.

Diabetes mellitus is further subdivided into:

– Insulin dependent diabetes type 1. This is a disease that is most prevalent in children and youths. Its characteristic is the deficiency of insulin in the blood. Resulting from a pancreas which produces too little insulin.

– Non-insulin dependent diabetes (type II). This condition, on the other hand, is prevalent in individuals aged 40 and above. Here, the cells find it difficult to absorb insulin from the blood. This may happen even with a normal insulin production by the pancreas. The evolution of this type of diabetes is much slower than that of juvenile diabetes.

The above are some of the metabolic disorders that are prevalent among humans in the modern world. If you fall victim to any of them, be fast in opting for medical solutions before it’s too late.

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Alcohol and Drug Abuse Awareness

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Alcohol has been shown to statistically cause more teenage fatalities than all other drugs put together.

Because alcohol has been shown to be strongly correlated with the three leading causes of death among young adults – suicide, murder, and accidents , such as car accidents – the threat that alcohol poses to young populations needs to be taken more seriously.

The health care costs of both drug and alcohol abuse are staggering as well. The National Institute of Drug Abuse found that alcohol abuse costs $27 billion every year in health care costs and drug abuse collectively costs $37 billion for illicit and prescription drug abuse combined. Those numbers are worrying.

More worrying still is the fact that these numbers are only a drop in the bucket compared to the overall costs that alcohol and drug abuse take on a nation in terms of lost productivity, increased crime, and as already alluded to skyrocketing health care costs.

When you add up these three costs (lower productivity, higher crime, and higher health care costs) you’re talking about nearly a quarter-trillion or $249 billion annually for alcohol abuse and over a quarter trillion for illicit and prescription drugs combined.

The Monitoring the Future study’s results show some promising trends as well as areas for continued concern with respect to today’s youth and tomorrow’s future. Alcohol use among 12th graders, for instance, has gone down about 7% over the last 3 years whereas illicit drug use has pretty much stayed steady with about half of 12th graders indulging in illicit drugs.

Fortunately, the number of 8th graders choosing to partake in alcohol use has gone down since 2013 when it was 27.80% – today that number is 22.80%, which means that fewer than one in four 8th graders is choosing to use alcohol. The number of 12th graders using marijuana, though, has remained fairly constant at around half (~48%) over the last three years.

The frightening reality for many substance abuse, mental health experts, politicians, and concerned parents is that youngsters that drink are more than 7 times more likely to partake in other illicit drugs. And get this: A kid who drinks who 50 times more likely to use cocaine illicitly and on a recreational basis than another kid who abstains from alcohol altogether through his or her middle school, high school, and early adult years.

Recent data shows that among the nearly 4 million people who were treated in 2005 for substance abuse a full 2.4 million were also treated for alcohol abuse. That’s because there’s a big comorbidity (or co-occurrence) between the two kinds of abuse. There also happens to be a big correlation between drug abuse, alcohol abuse, anxiety disorders, and depression.

This is still a chicken or the egg question that psychologists and mental health professionals are trying to work out but it’s currently believed that anxiety disorders, major depression, or bipolar disorder could predispose certain people to start using certain illicit substances and alcohol in order to self medicate. This is never appropriate and a mental health professional and substance abuse counselor should always be called in to help.

Help is needed more desperately than ever because more Americans are falling prey to drug and alcohol abuse. Worryingly, a full 40% of violent crime has been associated with alcohol use, according to the United States Department of Justice. In a single year (2007) alcohol-related traffic fatalities topped 10,000 people. That’s more than should ever succumb to these kinds of accidents.

If you or a loved one are struggled with drug abuse or alcohol abuse contact a substance abuse counselor today for help.

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What is Red Ribbon Week?

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Each year, the nation celebrates Red Ribbon Week. However, many people aren’t quite sure what it is, or how it got started. Red Ribbon Week is a campaign dedicated to bringing awareness to drug, alcohol, and violence prevention. It is observed during October each year in the United States. It is the largest, and oldest, drug prevention program in the country.

Red Ribbon Week’s Origins

In 1988, the National Family Partnership organized the first Nationwide Red Ribbon Week in partnership with President and First Lady Reagan. Red ribbons began showing up in 1985, in response to the murder of Special Agent Enrique Camarena. Camarena was a DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) Agent, who was kidnapped, brutally tortured and killed by the drug traffickers he was investigating in Mexico in 1985. He joined the DEA to make a difference, and his death angered parents and children across the country.

Red Badges

In honor of Camarena’s memory and the work he did to rid the country of illegal drugs, Camerena’s childhood friend, Henry Lozano and Congressman Duncan Hunter created “Camarena Club”. They began wearing red satin ribbons to show their opposition to drugs. The symbol spread across the country. Soon, parents who were sick of the destruction caused by alcohol and drugs joined them. They formed coalitions, coalitions that adopted the symbol of Camarena’s memory, the red satin ribbon.

Red Ribbon Week Today

Today, Red Ribbon Week is celebrated during the last week of October each year. It is a way for schools, businesses, and families to educate their youth and get them to participate in drug prevention activities. Red Ribbon Week activities reach millions of people each year. Wearing red ribbons during the month of October represents a pledge to live drug free and honors the sacrifice of Special Agent Camarena and others who have lost their lives fighting against drugs.

From Red Ribbon Week photo contests to Red Ribbon Week-themed essays, schools take part each year in a big way, and parents are always encouraged to participate. Businesses often hand out Red Ribbons, and employees wear them to show their support. Rallies are often planned in cities, and even in the nation’s capital to bring awareness to this important subject.

Now, even the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts can earn a DEA Red Ribbon Patch.

See what your community is doing this year to commemorate Red Ribbon Week, and make sure to wear your ribbon.

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Symptoms of Depression

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Over 16.1 million people in the United States suffer from depression. For some, it is mild. There are other people who suffer from persistent depressive disorder (PDD), which continues for at least two years. Some people become depressed after serious life events such as chronic illness, the death of a loved one, or the end of a relationship or a marriage. There are others who become depressed due to a chemical imbalance in the brain. There are several symptoms that are related to a major depressive episode.

Feelings of Sadness

Everyone feels sad at one time or another, however, if your sadness persists and doesn’t seem to go away, you could be suffering from depression. Feelings of emptiness is also a symptom.

Feelings of Hopelessness

If you once felt hope about your life and your future and suddenly you are experiencing feelings of hopelessness, you could be suffering from depression.

Lack of Interest in Activities that Once Caused Pleasure

If you once had hobbies and activities that you enjoyed and suddenly, you don’t find pleasure in any of them, you could be suffering from depression. For example, if you once looked forward to your Saturday afternoon basketball game and suddenly you would rather stay home, depression could be the underlying reason. Also, if you once enjoyed sex and suddenly you have no sex drive at all, you could be suffering from depression.

Lack of Energy

Lack of energy is a common symptom of depression. If you suddenly have no energy and you feel tired all the time, it could be that you are working too hard and spreading yourself too thin, however, it could be a sign of depression. If you find that you are sleeping several more hours each day than usual or that you would rather be sleeping than doing anything else, you could be suffering from depression or PDD.

Insomnia

While fatigue and sleeping more is a symptom depression, insomnia is as well. If you have trouble sleeping at night even though you are tired, you could be suffering from depression.

Changes in Appetite

Changes in appetite is a sign of depression. For some people, they lose their appetite, resulting in a weight loss. There are some people who overeat when they are suffering from depression which results in weight gain. If you notice changes in your appetite, it is a warning sign.

Irritability

If you were once a happy, easy going person and suddenly you find that you are irritable, it could be a sign of depression. There are some cases when irritability is caused by other issues, such as stress and lack of sleep, however, if you find that you are feeling irritable often, you could be suffering from depression.

Persistent Physical Symptoms

There are cases where depression can manifest itself in physical symptoms. There are people who suffer from depression who complain of frequent headaches, digestive disorders, and pain that have no medical explanations. While depression manifesting itself as physical symptoms is rare, it does happen.

Cognitive Problems

Depression can result in cognitive problems such as difficulty concentrating, difficulty making decisions and short-term memory loss. Since these problems are signs of other health problems, depression can be difficult to diagnose if these are the only symptoms.

Thoughts of Suicide

Thoughts of suicide are the most danger

ous symptom of depression. Many depressed people who think about committing suicide eventually attempt it.

Depression is a very serious illness. It can result in physical ailments and in more severe cases, death. Fortunately, through regular visits with a mental health professional and with medication, depression can be treated.

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How to Handle Domestic Violence

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Domestic violence is a very serious problem in the United States. Statistics show that 20 people are physically abused by an intimate partner every minute. If you suspect that a friend or family member is being abused, it is up to you to intervene. If you don’t do something early enough, your loved one could be severely injured or possibly killed. When it comes to domestic violence, there are a few ways that you should handle it.

Look for the Signs

Most victims of domestic violence don’t want to admit that there is anything wrong with the relationship. Even though it is not the victim’s fault, they often take the blame. Many victims are too embarrassed to admit that they are being victimized. Finally, many victims still love their abusers and they don’t want people to think poorly about them. If you suspect that your loved one is being abused, you should look for the signs.

  • Becoming isolated from family and friends
  • Being sad or withdrawn
  • Mysterious bruises on their body
  • Nervousness and jumpiness when their partner is around.

Ask Questions Without Berating

If you suspect that a loved one is being abused, you should ask them straight out. If they don’t admit it, you should press them without berating them. Let them know the reasons that you suspect that there is abuse. If you have recognized the signs, let your loved one know. In many cases, they will see that they are not hiding it as well as they thought they were and they will come clean.

Help Them Create a Safety Plan

If your loved one is willing to admit to you that they are being abused, it doesn’t mean that they will be ready to leave the relationship. If this is the case, it is up to you to help keep them as safe as possible. You should help your loved one come up with an emergency plan if their partner hits them. This means coming up with a place for them to go where they can be safe. When they leave, they are going to need to get away as quickly as possible and be away for a few days. It is a good idea for your loved one to pack a safety bag. It should include a few days worth of clothing and medication. If they have children, make sure that the victim has packed clothing and toys for them as well. If they feel safe, they can hide the bag in the trunk of the car. If the victim is worried that their partner will discover the bag, you can keep it at your house so that their partner won’t find it.

Encourage Them To Get Help

As mentioned above, most victims of domestic violence don’t want to go to the police. They worry about getting their partner into trouble, even though they are being abused. If you cannot get your loved one to go to the police, you should talk them into getting counseling. Many people who are victims of domestic abuse suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This can cause panic attacks, depression, anxiety, nightmares, and insomnia. Your loved one will need the help of a mental health professional to treat the PDSD. Also, the therapist might be able to get your loved one to understand that it is not their fault and they need to report the violence to the police.

If you believe that someone you love is being abused, it is up to you to be there for them. You could be the one to save their life.

 

 

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